Effects of School Fees on Equity Provision of Education in Public Secondary Schools in Nairobi Province, Kenya
The main objective of this research was to find out the effects of school fees on equity provision of education to students in public secondary schools in Kenya. School fee structures approved by the ministry of education on 12th February 2010 shows that, National schools pay an average of Ksh 62,000.00, Provincial Boarding Ksh 40,000.00, and Day schools Ksh.12,000.00 per year yet the student needs which are addressed by school fees to facilitate education provision are basically the same. The researcher used cross-sectional survey research design. The independent variables were: fees charged in various categories of secondary schools, parents’ economic background, government policy on fees, while the dependent variables were equity provision of learning resources, provision of teachers, student retention in schools, student educational and career aspirations. Target population comprised of secondary school head teachers, teachers, students and parents. Sampling techniques included: stratified sampling for school categories, simple random sampling for students and purposive sampling for head teachers and parents. The sample comprised of: twenty three head teachers, two hundred forty seven teachers, three thousand two hundred and ninety one students, and forty six parents. The research instruments used were: Interview for head teachers and parents, questionnaires for teachers and students and observation check list for school facilities. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, and means using Statistical Package For Social Sciences.(SPSS) and presented using tables, graphs, and charts. Discussion and interpretation of the findings, established that the higher the school fees charged, the better the provision of education to students, the lower the school fees charged the poorer the provision of education to students. Students in day secondary schools are highly disadvantaged in equity provision of education. In conclusion, categorization of school fees in Kenyan secondary school is a hindrance to equity provision of education to learners from poor economic backgrounds and day schools. The researcher recommended a revision of school fees policy guidelines to guard against differences in fees paid in secondary schools, allocate funds for free secondary school according to the needs of the schools but not per student and employment of enough teachers for all public secondary schools to enhance equity provision of education.