GENERATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN WORK RELATED ATTITUDES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE IN PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES: EVIDENCE FROM KABARAK UNIVERSITY
BOINETT, CAROLINE CHEROTICH
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Work attitudes such as organizational commitment, job involvement, job satisfaction and perceived organizational support have dual interest to organizational managers and represent important outcomes they may want to enhance. The defined generations in Kenya somehow differ from the USA and other countries. In Kenya, Generation X refers to individuals born between 1963 – 1978 while Generation Y refers to individuals born between 1979 and 1998. The purpose of this study was to determine if differences exist among Generation X and Generation Y on their level of job satisfaction, job involvement, organizational commitment and perceived organizational support. The objectives guiding the study were; to establish the difference in job satisfaction and job performance between Generation X and Generation Y employees at Kabarak University, to determine the difference in job involvement and job performance between Generation X and Generation Y employees at Kabarak University, to probe the difference in organizational commitment and job performance between Generation X and Generation Y employees at Kabarak University and to investigate the difference in perceived organizational support and job performance between Generation X and Generation Y employees at Kabarak University. The key limitation of this study was that data could not be generalized because it was a case study of Kabarak University which is a Private University. A cross-sectional survey research design was adopted. The target population comprised of 300 Generation X and Generation Y teaching and nonteaching employees working in Main, Nakuru and Nairobi campuses. Stratified random sampling was used and a sample size of 171 was utilized. Structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. A five point Likert scale was used to rate the extent of agreements by respondents from 5-strongly agree to 1-strongly disagree. Data was input using Microsoft Excel and analyzed aided by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Both descriptive mainly mean and nonparametric statistics were used to analyze data where Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare Generation X and Generation Y populations under study. A chisquare test was carried out. Findings were presented in figures and tables. The study revealed significant differences in job satisfaction (Z = -6.02, p<.000), job involvement (Z = -8.99, p<.000) and perceived organizational support (Z = -5.95, p<.000) in job performance of Generation X and Generation Y employees at Kabarak University. However, no significant difference was found with regard to organizational commitment (Z = -4.10, p>.12). It can be concluded that Generation X and Generation Y employees work related attitudes differed in job satisfaction, job involvement and perceived organizational support but did not differ in organizational commitment. The researcher recommends that private universities should incorporate work related attitudes in generation difference in their human resource policies for purposes of accommodating the variation in generations that affect employee behaviour in work environment. The researcher further recommends that a study be undertaken on the Generational differences in work related attitudes and their effects on employee performance in other private universities in Kenya and the sample should include Baby Boomers to establish whether they differ with Generation X and Generation Y in work related attitudes.