CONSTRAINTS AFFECTING CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION IN ADULT BASIC EDUCATION AND TRAINING (ABET) IN MACHAKOS COUNTY, KENYA
NZINGA, EDWARD KATUE
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A review of all of the available evaluation studies of adult literacy programs in Third World settings revealed that poor program design and implementation are the causes of inefficiency. Adult education in Machakos County is bedeviled by inadequate teaching staff, funds, facilities; and unskilled part-time teachers among others. This raises a lot of concern since these challenges pose a direct threat to Curriculum implementation in the County. The purpose of the study was to explore constraints affecting curriculum implementation in adult basic education and training (ABET) in Machakos County. Objectives were to: determine perceptual constraints of adult learners on the implementation of adult basic education; establish perceptual constraints of education managers on their understanding of their role in adult education; explore methodological constraints of teaching adult basic education in the implementation of the adult basic education and identify problems facing adult education officers in monitoring and supervision of adult education programs. Research findings will assist the proper implementation of adult learning programs while Researchers will be assisted to identify the research gaps in the field of curriculum implementation in adult education. The study used descriptive survey research design and was based ona Theoretical framework embracing five main theories namely: - Adult learning theory, Mezirow’s Theory of Perspective Transformation, Systems Theory, Reference Group Theory and Gross, Giacquinta and Bernstein (1971) theory of implementing Curriculum innovations. The units of analysis were 424 Adult Education Learning Centres. The study population was 181 Adult Literacy teachers, 7104 adult education Learners, 424 Managers of Adult Education Centres, and 8 District Adult and Continuing Education Officers (DACEO’s).The researcher used both stratified and saturated random sampling and using an automated system picked out a corresponding sample of 19 adult education centers, 104 adult education learners, 18 adult education teachers, 19 adult education center managers and 8 District Adult and Continuing Education Officers (DACEO’s). The instruments of data collection were questionnairesand interview schedules. Reliability of the instruments was addressed through piloting in one adult education centre and a reliability co-efficient of 0 .745 which indicated that the instruments were reliable were obtained by subjecting the instruments to a Split-half Technique and Spearman “Brown Prophesy Formula”. Experts ensured the instruments met the face, content and construct validity, they were precise and consistent and that the tools were measuring what they purported to measure in order to ensure wider acceptance. Data was analysed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The findings of the study were as follows: -unwillingness of the learners to pay for the program, a negative perception of the program, a marked sense of skepticism about adult education, and lack of conviction about the benefits of the program were the perceptual constraints of adult education learners on implementation of adult education in Machakos County. It was concluded that there indeed existed perceptual, managerial, methodological, monitoring, and supervisory constraints facing curriculum implementation of adult education programs in Machakos County. It was recommended that efforts be made to destigmatize the program and funds be availed. It was suggested that further research be conducted on stigma, low men enrolment and policy framework.